The 2019 National Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Sodium (Na + ) and Potassium (K + ) Report concluded there remains insufficient evidence to establish a K + DRI. This study tested the hypothesis that reduced Na + and increased K + excretion will positively associate with lower blood pressure in salt sensitive (SS) and salt resistant (SR) participants in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Sodium Trial (DASH–Sodium). Via the NHLBI BioLINCC we accessed the DASH-Sodium dataset for data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), 24-h urinary Na + and K + excretion at screening (regular patient diet; N = 186, SS N = 222 SR) and post DASH diet (N = 71 SS, N = 119 SR). The relationships between SBP, urinary Na + and K + excretion, and Na + /K + ratio were assessed via linear regression. At screening elevated urinary Na + excretion positively associated with SBP in SS (1 g increase in urinary Na + excretion = +1 0 ± 0.4 mmHg) but not SR participants, and urinary K + excretion of <1 g K + /day was associated with higher SBP in SS and SR participants. Urinary K + excretion ?1 g/day, or a decreases in urinary Na + /K + ratio, was not associated with lower SBP. Post the DASH–sodium diet intervention, SBP was reduced in SS and SR participants. However, no correlation was observed between reduced SBP and urinary K + excretion or the urinary Na + /K + ratio irrespective of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. Our data support the DRI recommendation not to establish a K + DRI and suggest further evidence is required to support a reduced Na + /K + ratio to lower SBP.
Blood circulation pressure, the most famous non-communicable disease international, stands for a life threatening all over the world public health issue. Based on the 2017 Western Cardiovascular system Relationship (AHA) recommendations, the brand new frequency away from blood pressure levels among us grownups is estimated as 46% ; in addition,
50% of hypertensive folks are projected are salt sensitive (SS) . As noted by Federal Heart to have Persistent Condition Protection and you can Health Campaign statement
90% out of American people consume an excessive amount of weight-loss salt (Na + ), that have the common every single day use surpassing 3400 milligrams when you look at the adult All of us people, a value almost 3 times the newest every single day use recommended from the AHA additionally the Federal Academy of Science, Engineering, and you can Medicine Weight loss Site Intakes (DRI) . Given that excess slimming down Na + consumption, that can drive the brand new salt sensitivity away from blood pressure level and increase blood pressure chance, around the world weight loss Na + consumption try a general public fitness chance. The fresh perception out of slimming down Na + intake toward blood pressure level has been examined inside the numerous weight loss input products promoting research you to faster dieting salt consumption within the controlled setup causes decreases into the blood circulation pressure [six,7,8]. After that, meta-analyses features correlated weightloss Na + restrict that have decreases in blood pressure level suggesting there is certainly a medical benefit in both normotensive and hypertensive people despite brand new sodium sensitiveness away from blood pressure level [9, 10].
Connection off urinary salt and you will potassium excretion with systolic blood pressure levels about Dietary Answers to Prevent Blood pressure levels Salt Demo
Recent evidence suggests the salt sensitivity of blood pressure may be modulated, in part, by dietary potassium (K + ) intake. Increasing dietary K + intake appears to counteract the effects of dietary Na + intake on increasing blood pressure [11,12,13]. Despite several studies that have documented blood pressure lowering effects of increasing K + intake, the 2019 National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine DRI for sodium and potassium Report did not establish a DRI for K + . This Uniform dating apps report concluded that more evidence is required to support a DRI of K + with particular reference to a lack of K + dose-response trials limiting the evidence to establish a K + DRI . Several studies have reported that the urinary Na + :K + ratio has a stronger association with blood pressure than Na + or K + independently [14, 15]. Largely based on these data, a urinary Na + to K + molar ratio of <1 has been recommended [16, 17] as a beneficial target to improve long-term blood pressure control. Given the high global dietary Na + intake this would necessitate dietary, or other means, of K + supplementation-for which a DRI has not been established . A leading dietary intervention study was the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension 2 Trial (DASH-Sodium) conducted between 1997 and 2002 . The DASH-Sodium trial was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial that examined the impact of three levels dietary Na + intake in combination with either a control or DASH diet (rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in total fat) on blood pressure. This study demonstrated substantial effects of dietary Na + reduction and the DASH diet on reducing blood pressure, with more significant blood pressure lowering effects with the combination of a DASH diet plus dietary Na + reduction than dietary Na + restriction alone in individuals with higher than optimal blood pressure . Given that the DASH diet intervention elevated dietary K + intake by increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in combination with modifying daily dietary Na + intake, examining the potential interaction between dietary Na + and K + intake on blood pressure in the DASH trial will provide valuable insight into the potential influence of dietary K + on blood pressure.